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Proof Against Neal Adams and Expanding Earth

India:
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Here I will discuss India and its role in Plate Tectonics.

India is unique because it broke off from Africa during the breakup of Pangaea. It then drifted towards the Eurasian Plate and collided with it, causing major uplifing and mountain-building.

Neal Adams claims that this is not so, as seen in these two videos explaining India and Mountain building.

Neal Adams India:

Neal Adams Mountains:

Neal Adams Mountains Essay:

Neal claims that when the Earth was expanding, India remained exactly where it is now, and expanded along with the rest of the Earth.

Geology does not except this. Here is why. Paleomagnetic dating show that the Indian landmass was south of the equator during the time of Pangaea. Solid lava has confirmed this. Subsequent lava flows over time show its movement towards and past the equator. The formation of the Himalayas also is explained by Plate Tectonic Theory. The massive collision between the Eurasian Plate and the Indian Plate create huge mountains due to its kinetic energy and momentum. In fact, India is still moving inland, resulting in numerous earthquakes.

Now, remember how I said that most plates are comprised of both Continental and Oceanic plates. Well, the Indian landmass was no different. The Indian continent was surrounded by oceanic crust. It was pushed northward because of the spreading ridge around the African Plate. As it approached Eurasia, the oceanic portion of the Indian landmass subducted under Eurasia, bringing the two continents together. The subducted plate is also seen using geophysical seismic tomography under the Eurasian plate.

india.gif
India as it moved over time.

Mountain building is explained by Neal Adams as "growing cracks". This is ridiculous.

Mountains are formed by the collision between two plates. Two continental plates collide form huge mountains. However, a continental and oceanic plate also creates mountains. For example, the Rocky Mountains.

The energy from the collision forces the landmass upwards, folding and faulting them, creating mountains.

Neal Adams model does not explain why there is such extensive folding and faulting in mountain ranges. Rather, his model would make it seem that they should be relatively flat-lying, or at least curved upwards.

Neal Adams model does not accurately explain what is seen in mountains today.

Neal Adams also claims that the continental "cracks" seen near the edges of continents are a result of these expansions. This is not the case. Those "cracks" are actually formations created by the erosion of the substrate caused by rivers. Its that simple.

Next: Seafloor Spreading:

Indian Plate:

Geology of India:

Mountains:

Mountain Ranges:

Orogeny: