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Proof Against Neal Adams and Expanding Earth


Home | About Myself: | Neal Adams Intro: | Neal Adams Pangaea Synopsis: | Geological Theory: | Plate Tectonic Theory: | Pangaea: | India: | Seafloor Spreading: | Cretaceous Mass Extinction: | Internal Structure:

The following is a critique of Neal Adams "case against Pangea".

Configuration of Pangaea

Pangaea is a supercontinent that existed during the end of the Permian and early Triassic Period, approximately 251.0 +/- 0.4 Ma (million years ago). The existence of Pangaea was concluded by the similarities of continents and through paleomagnetic stripping on the oceanic floor. It started to break up during the Jurassic Period, approximately 180 Ma. It completed its rifting approximately 65 Ma, during the Late Cretaceous Period.

Geological Time Scale (as of 2006) as measured by Geochronological Data

Rodinia on the otherhand is much more difficult to imagine. During the Neoproterozoic Era, another supercontinent formed, that we dubbed Rodinia. Its existence was scientifically measured using paleomagnetic and geochronological data.

The short version is this. When lava is erupted, the particles within the molten lava align themselves according to that times Earth magnetic field. Earth has repeatedly reversed its magnetic field, and we get a "stripping" effect. Then, when the lava cools and solidifies, it preserves the alignment of that magnetic field. Then, radiometrically dating the solid lava, we get an accurate date for that time. Then using care backtracking, we can get its approximate formation. This is an artist rendition of Rodinia.

So goes the story. Rodinia formed approximately 1.3 - 1.1 billion years ago (Ga) and all the continents at the time formed one large supercontinent. The shapes of the continents are very skewed, as over time, volcanic eruptions created larger areas of continental crust. Then, during the end of the Neoproterozoic Era, near the Cryogenian/Ediacaran Period, approximately 800 Ma, it broke up.

Configuration of Rodinia, approximately 1.1 Ga

Neal Adams "BIG" evidence for Hollow Earth and Expanding Earth is that the continents fit "perfectly" together. Not only on the Atlantic side (which is obvious) but also on the Pacific side as well. Although with minor changes (because of erosion), they more or less fit perfectly together.

Note Laurentia, which is what makes up present day North America. Notice where it is located, adjacent and connected to Antarctica, Australia, Europe and Asia. Although they do not look like present form, with the inclusion of continental shelfs they would look very similar.

Next: The Math:






Supercontinent Cycles (not discussed):