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Proof Against Neal Adams and Expanding Earth

Geological Theory:

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Here, I will discuss the points that were hit on the previous page regarding Neal Adams critique on Solar Nebular Theory.

ra4-protoplanetary-disk.jpg
Artist rendition on proto-planetary disk

Neal childishly explains a very complicated theory of science known as Solar Nebular Theory. He uses childish terms and illogical examples to make his point. Well, if you remove his bad syntax errors and childish remarks, you'd understand how ridiculous his ideas are. Here we go.

Solar Nebular Theory is a theory that is very complicated, but can be explained quite simply. The theory is used to explain the formation of the solar system.

It states that over 4.6 billion years ago (at least) the solar system, as we know it, was only a massive ball of dust. It accumulated together in this region of space because of gravity, as described by General Relativity and the bending of space-time. As the massive dust cloud gathered, at its center, a large majority of the dust accumulated, and because of the force of gravity and pressure, it formed a proto-sun. This proto-sun was surrounded by the rest of the dust cloud that was not used, which we call the accretion disk. The proto-sun continued to pull in more particles from the dust cloud however, and continued to burn through the process of fusion.

The rest of the dust cloud however also started to accumulate into larger particles. Whatever would survive the proto-sun's gravitational pull would continue to accumulate dust particles and continue to grow. These dust particles would grow into asteroids and meteors close to the proto-sun, and large icy bodies further away from the proto-sun.

Now, with millions upon millions of asteroids orbiting the proto-sun in very obscure orbits, constantly crossing over each other, collisions occur frequently. The asteroids momentum and kinetic enregy, described as:

p = mv
p = momentum (kg m/s)
m = mass (kg)
v = velocity (m/s)

KE = (1/2)mv^2
KE = kinetic energy (J)
m = mass (kg)
v = velocity (m/s)

The asteroids momentum and kinetic energy when two or more collide is very large because both its mass and velocity would be large, and are directly related to its momentum and kinetic energy. So, when they collide, lots of energy goes into the collision, resulting in partial melting. This partial melting is enough for the two or more asteroids to form one larger asteroid. This has been proved using physical and mathematical models.

As larger and larger asteroids form through these collisions, the amount of material remains the same, however they are now accumulated within the asteroids. Therefore, it "cleans" up the solar system. Now, eventually, with larger asteroids, there is larger kinetic energy, which results in larger melting upon collision. As these larger asteroids collide, they eventually form what is known as Planetesimals. These planetesimals are basically smaller versions of planets.

Now, these are huge solid bodies orbiting the proto-sun. When these collide, a lot of energy goes into the collision, resulting in large amounts of melting. Note, that when you get larger objects, the solar system gets "cleaner". This is why we do not have large asteroids the size of planets anymore. When large amounts of melting occurs, the heavier and denser material fall towards the center, and the lighter material remains on top. In the solar system, the most abundant elements are hydrogen (H), helium (He), oxygen (O), carbon (C), iron (Fe) and silicon (Si). It turns out that iron (Fe) is the most common and densest element found in asteroids within the solar system. Therefore, scientists concluded that when planetesimals collided to form the Earth (and all terrestrial planets), the heavier iron and nickel sank to the center of the planet, and the silicon (Si) remained on top. This process if known as "planet differentiation".

Neal argues that since we find iron, nickel, and a whole suite of dense elements at Earths surface, how could this be possible? Well its simple, the collisions mostly create partial melting. Also, during "planet differentiation", there is never 100% differentiation of the elements. Something Neal never though of.

Next: Continued

Solar Nebular Theory and the Formation of the Solar System:

Solar Nebular Theory:

Giant Impact Hypothesis:

Late Heavy Bombardment (not discussed):

Planetary Differentiation: